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Dissertations of Graduate Students Graduated in 2010

1.Ibn Battuta's Journey to Islamic World

By Zhang Xinghong

Abstract:Ibn Battuta, Marco Polo, E Doleac and Nigeluokang were four great travelers in the Middle Ages . But the mileage he travelled and the countries he crossed were far more the other three. There fore, the Concise Encyclopedia Britannic called him ??A traveler that no one transcended before the steam engine era.His book Rihla can be called one rare encyclopedia in social history, geography, economy, folklore and religious etc. in many countries in Asia, Africa, Europe in the 14th century. Its significance lies not only he created ?? A New World Record ??in travelling history, but more important we can clearly feel the pulse between the civilizations and in the civilizations in the complicated medieval world, and his experiences proved that Islamic civilization did not collapse with the collapse of the Empire system. It made religious, cultural, social legislation, spiritual identity, economic exchanges as the link, and it has been diffusion outward before the advent of Western Europe capitalism expanding. This article describes and discusses the history of his three journeys each in turn, the background and the success factors of his travels, analyzes the reasons and the purpose of his journeys. This paper is divided into three chapters.
The first chapter describes Ibn Battuta??s three journeys. He began his first trip on June 14,1325, This time he traveled North Africa , West Asia, East Africa, Central Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, finally arrived in China, and then return home along the South-East Asia, South Asia, West Asia, North Africa, Morocco. He went back to the capital of Fez on November 8, 1349.The second time he traveled in the Islamic small country in the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula from early 1350 to about early fall in 1351. He began his long journey for the third time, travelling to West Africa in the fall of 1351, and went back to Fez on January 6, 1354.
I probed the wide context of Ibn Battuta??s journeys in Section I Chapter II, that is the interaction within the Islamic world promoted the formation of the conception ??Dar al-Islam?? , and vice versa, at same time it had provided possibilities and guarantees for the long-distance travel of medieval Islamic scholars. In Section II I Compared Ibn Battuta’s travelling routing with the 13th century world system of Janet L. Abu-Lughod and Philippe Beaujard ??s 8 major economic and trade circles, after comparion we can see Ibn Battuta left his footprints in the major economic, trade area in Europe,Asia and Africa that the two above mentioned. It illustrated there was inherent, indivisible links among the economy, culture and religion. In Section III I analyzed the center interactive role in medieval of European, Asian and African continent- long distance trade. The fixed trade routes offered much convenience for Ibn Battuta??s travelling. In Section IV I analyzed the objective, technical factors of the travel from the spread of Arabic, caravan, monsoon, shipbuilding technology.
In the third chapter I analyzed the purpose of Ibn Battuta journeys: Hajj, travelling in the world, looking for hermits, seeking knowledge, propagating religion, being an official etc.
Key words: Ibn Battuta; Dar al-Islam; Interaction; Journey

2.A Study of Kyakhta from the Perspective of Global History

By Liu Xiaoyong

Abstract:The Sino-Russian relation from 1727 to 1840 played an important part in Qing Dynasty's foreign affairs. During the bilateral exchanges, Kyakhta, a border town in the Qing Empire, played a significant role. In this period, the similar strength between China and Russia formed a specific exchange model in business trade. In Kyakhta times based on this model, two countries??economic and cultural exchange continued to develop in depth. However, this period was also the time during which Chinese and Russian states enlarged their gap in power. The Kyakhta model of Sino-Russian exchange was replaced by Russia's armed aggression around 1840s.
This paper is composed of the four following parts:
This part mainly describes the early Sino-Russian contacts before 1689, the armed conflict dominated in the Heilongjiang River. From then on to the middle of 19th century, the two countries enjoyed peaceful contact. In addition, this part also explains the cultural
communication of two countries before Kyakhta??s model. The peace lays a stable foundation for the future economic, cultural, religious and other exchanges.
China began to trade with European countries on a large scale in the Ming dynasty. The Qing Dynasty's foreign policy experienced constant adjustments before it gradually established a set of contacts with the West, namely, Guangdong trade system. Since then, the contact between China and the West entered the Guangzhou trade era.Contrary to Guangzhou trade era, there was another model of Chinese- Western exchange in the northern China, namely, Kyakhta model. This model dominated the period. The writer calls it Kyakhta era?? of Sino- Russian Exchange.
After signing the Kyakhta Treaty, economic exchanges between China and Russia experienced constant development and changes. After the initial contact of demanding mutual goods, the two countries began to trade mainly on fur and tea. This part analyzes the mystery behind China??s goods exporting and the crisis underneath Chinese goods exporting. Based on the advantage of Kyakhta trade, Russia??s national strength gradually exceeded China in all respects. Because of the conservative trade policy, Chinese technical superiority in industrial machines was totally nonexistent.
In ??Kyakhta era??, the ways of cultural exchange between China and Russia were obtained mainly through the learning of languages between the two parties and Russia??s Orthodox spreading into China. Russia dominated the exchange while China was made to learn Russian. In the exchange, the Russians were the stronger roles than the Chinese. In the following exchange, China?? interests was harmed because of the asymmetry of information and intelligence between two countries.
Key words: Kyakhta era; Kyakhta model; Sino-Russian trade; Sino-Russian cultural Exchange

3.The Emerging of Global History and World History Teaching in USA

By Lang?Hong

Abstract:With the collapse of colonialism in the second half of 20th century and the development of economic globalization, the United States historical academia began to rethink the World History, world history. The world history research emerged a great deal of masterpiece which aimed to break Eurocentrism. Meanwhile, in the historical teaching, traditional Western Civilization course did not adapt to the globalization, students lost interest in history. These elements caused the United States to reform the world history teaching. The aim of the teaching reform is to make
world history course adapt the reality of globalization era and meet contemporary students requirement. Global history laid the foundation for new world history textbooks and promoted the world history teaching. The core contents of my thesis is to explore the background of global history and its influences on world historical teaching in the United States.
Key words:the rise of global history; world history teaching in the United States; world history textbook compilation

4.The World View of Multi-National Collective Film

By Che Xueying

??Abstract??This thesis consists of two chapters: The exordium The significance of studying this theme and introducing the existing situation of research on it. Besides this exordium narrates the historical materials used and clarifies the emphases of the content and analysis of a simple topic included in the scope. The first chapter??The preparation of history of multi-national collective film. Dividing into four periods, by a major, the impact of the film, events or changes. That is 1950s, 1960s to 1970s, 1980s to 1990s, 2000 to now, introduced the basic situation of multi-national collective film. The second chapter Classify and analyze typical films. Divide multi-national collective films from 1950s to now into five categories, analyze these representative films, combined with the historical background and the related events. In each film, directors from different countries and peoples interpret the same subject from different angles, to reflect cultural encounters between different countries, different peoples, as well as different religious, and show such a world image- diversity and integration of culture.
Appendix contains 24 reference films in chronological order.
Key words:collective film, multi-national, world, culture, encounter, diversity and Integration

5.A Study on the Compilation of Ancient China??s History in World History Works

By Wen Quan

Abstract:Global Historical View?? believes that world history's research and writing should have a global perspective. Ancient China was one of the cradles of human civilization, so ancient China's history should have its own space in the historiography of world history. But ancient China's history often held little space in traditional European and American world history works, while in China, world history works are often the sum of foreign histories. Therefore, it is of great theoretical significance to study how to narrate China's history in the historiography of world history and it is also of great practical significance for Chinese people to better understand China in world history.
As for Chinese scholars, they are only at the stage of attempt and start on bringing China's history into the historiography of world history. To research on the authors?? historiographical ideas, the arrangement of chapters and sections and the writing features about ancient China's history of 11 representative Chinese and foreign world history works, and so to sum up the historiographical experiences of these works, it might give Chinese scholars inspiration on the historiography of ancient China's history in world history.
It is often textbooks or popular readings be the starting point for people to know and understand world history. It is also textbooks or popular readings be the main medium for the public to know and understand the world from the Global Historical View. Chinese scholars need to draw on previous experiences and renew their ideas, so as to compile high level world history textbooks for secondary school students and history speciality undergraduate students, high level General Education Courses world history textbooks for non-history speciality undergraduate students and high level popular world history readings. Chinese scholars are shouldering heavy responsibilities and they need to continue their efforts.
Key words:Global Historical View;World History Works;Ancient China's History;Textbooks;Popular readings;Historiography