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Dissertations of Graduate Students Graduated in 2011

1.The Development of Papers in Middle Age Mediterranean and Cross-Cultural Interaction

By Mao Jiapeng

Abstract:Written communication indicated the form and developing of cultural area in the Middle Age. As the most important form of written communication, different kinds of papers have affected the cross-cultural interaction significantly. Papyri, parchment and Arabic paper were the main kinds of paper that time in Mediterranean which have progressed and exchanged between different cultural areas. Firstly, the developing of papers had affected the local cultural. Secondly, the exchange of papers had drive the cultural interaction deeply. This article tries to narrate the developing and interaction of papers that time, so as to show a view of cross-cultural interaction in Mediterranean in the Middle Age, and explains it with the method of global historiography.

2.Timbuktu: Prosperity and Decline of a Global City

By Zhan Xinlei

Abstract: Located in the middle reach of the Niger, Timbuktu is now only a provincial capital in the Republic of Mali, connecting Gao and Jenne; but back in the days from the later period of Ghana Empire through Mali Empire and Songhai Empire, it was not only the capital of all West Africa, both economically and culturally, but also one of the most important business metropolis in the Saharan trading area (most notably for the trade of gold and salt). As the economic heart of West Africa, Timbuktu also had enormous impact on Sub-Saharan Africa and the Mediterranean world. It was truly the global city back in the Middle Ages.The city of Timbuktu rose as the trading route began to take on its due influence (roughly around 1087); it sparkled as the trading route matured (1493-1591); and it eventually lost its glamour when the western trading route was devastated by years of wars and became overshadowed by its eastern counterpart and the marine route. The fate of Timbuktu was always bond together with the vicissitudes of the Cross-Saharan trade.This paper is constituted of the following four chapters:??. Saharan trade and the raise of Timbuktu. This chapter introduces the trade across Saharan which was the main background of rising of Timbuktu and the early history of Timbuktu. The details include the development of trade across Saharan, commodity of the trade route and the reason of Timbuktu??s rising. The emphasize is to analysis the development of Timbuktu which owe to the trade across Saharan.??. The prosperity of Timbuktu as a global city and its reasons and influences. This chapter introduces the influence of Timbuktu at the height of power that includes the details of politics, economic, society and ideology of Timbuktu, and the reason of flourishing. Also this chapter introduces the influence of Timbuktu to the Mediterranean and the station of??global city??of Timbuktu.??. The decline of Timbuktu and Timbuktu in the current day. This chapter introduces the decline of Timbuktu of which includes the reason and influence, and the experience of Timbuktu history under the background of globalization.??. The lessons we can learn from the historical experience of Timbuktu in China??s construction of global cities.
Key words:Cross-Saharan trade?? Timbuktu?? Global city?? Gold?? Islamic culture??

3.Quanzhou and the Formation of its Regional Society?and Indian Ocean Trade During 11-14 Century

By Li Dawei

Abstract:The study of a large scale of the world economy and the social pattern gradually become an important school of the study of global history. The Indian Ocean as a important exchanging platform of the Eurasian is concerned by many scholars such as K.N.Chaudhuri and Michael Pearson. The scale of the trade of the Indian Ocean expanded and the web of the trade of the Indian Ocean became more and more complex after AD 1000. Since the effect that the trade system of the Indian Ocean imposed on the trade port was more distinct, the development of a region could even influence the boom and slump of another region. Quanzhou as a port connecting the trade of China and the Indian Ocean became a very important port of the trade system of the Indian Ocean after the 11th century by trade, interaction and intercourse with the region of the Indian Ocean. As the trade was more and more flourishing, the population of Quanzhou increased, the region of Quanzhou developed, many merchants of the Indian Ocean that managed the trade between Quanzhou and the Indian Ocean migrated to Quanzhou. As the trade was the preambl of the culture exchanging, many merchants settling in Quanzhou brought their culture and religions. Accompanying the trade of the Indian Ocean, all kinds of the religion in the world such as Islam, Christianity, Manicheism and Hinduism sweeped into Quanzhou. This religions were in harmony with the Buddhism that entered into Quanzhou more earlier and the Daoism that was the native religion. We can see the inseparable connection and interaction of the trade, religion and culture and the process of the integration of the Eurasian, which profoundly influenced the development of Quanzhou.
??Key words?? The Location of Quanzhou??s Economy and Geography?? The Trade of Quanzhou with the Indian Ocean?? The Management of Quanzhou??s Trade?? The Transition of Quanzhou City?? The Immigrant of Trade?? The Diversity of Religion??

4.1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic from the Perspective of Global History

By Zhang Yanmin

Abstract: As one of the most lethal plagues in human history,1918-1919 pandemic influenza, has killed 50 million-1 billion people in less than a year all over the world. It had a great impact on the World War I and its post-war arrangements, the social psychology and the economy in all parts of the earth. Its origin, spread and consequences all prompt-us not to forget its existence in the history and the possibility of reemergence, so that to have response in the future.This dissertation consists of five parts:Preface introduces the simple history of the influenza pandemic and the pathogenic characteristics of influenza virus as a basis of influenza pandemic, and the international academic study on the pandemic influenza of 1918. In the 20th century, there have been three global influenza pandemics; the pandemic influenza of 1918 has the most serious impact. Influenza viruses as RNA viruses are highly variability, which is the virology basis of influenza pandemic. The researches of west academic mainly focus on the response of public health and social history of medicine.Chapter 1 lays emphasis on the source and origin of 1918 influenza virus.1918 influenza virus is a virus like avian flu, it came from birds. As a battle field, France had all the necessary extreme conditions of epidemics, is the most likely origins of 1918 influenza pandemic.The chapter 2 looks into the course and causation of 1918-1919 influenza pandemic. The overcrowding and modern transportation was propitious to the spread of influenza viruses. The short of material caused by the war, weakened the people??s resistance to the influenza, the war influenced the effectiveness of public health policy; cyclical change of climate is conducive to virus mutation.Chapter 3 illuminates the great impact of 1918-1919 influenza pandemic on the war and postwar international arrangements, and its social psychological and economic impacts.Based on the analysis of 4 chapters above, the final chapter discusses the relationship between infectious diseases and human ecology and the impact of life way of human society on epidemics, suggesting that we must improve the research on epidemics.
Key words: influenza;World War I;epidemics; public health